Words are like people

June 20, 2014

Words are like people. There are interesting correlations between people and words. The two behave very similarly. People are rarely found in isolation. They live in makgotla, villages, cities, principalities, countries and nations. Rarely do you find a loner living in a forest or on top of a tree somewhere. That is atypical of people. Human beings are principally communal beings. We live in families. Words behave in a similar manner. Words don’t occur in isolation. They are found as part of clauses or phrases. They are part of sentences, paragraphs, chapters and large chunks such as books and reports. Words also are found certain semantic domains. For instance medical terms include hospital, doctor, nurse, injection, wound, patient, medicine, tablets, and many others. Christian religious terms include Jesus, spirit, angel, Bible, believe, belief, baptism, and convert.

Just as persons are usually found around certain kinds of people and rarely around others, words also cluster around certain words. This is in linguistics is collocation. In language we usually say strong tea & not powerful tea. We however say strong tea and not powerful tea. The word chips is usually found in the company fish in the expression fish and chips.

Some people are tall others are short. Some are ugly others are beautiful. So are* the words. There are long words and short words. There are ugly words and beautiful words. Just because a person is tall or big, that doesn’t make them the smartest, the toughest or the most educated. And so it is with words. Just because a word is long, that doesn’t make it the most challenging or the most appropriate in a situation. Some communities are full of pretentious individuals who appear important. There are also words which appear important or give a piece of writing an air of seriousness. George Orwell has struggled with this matter in his essay Politics and the English language. Here I quote from this essay extensively. He says “Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to give an air of culture and elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. g. and etc., there is no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language. Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and hundreds of others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers. The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing (hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of coining a new word is to use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation.” Richard Chenevix Trench has also grappled with the matter of words, especially how words are entered in dictionaries. He has argued that “A dictionary….is an inventory of the language… It is no task of the maker of it to select the good words of a language. If he fancies that it is so, and begins to pick and choose, to leave this and to take that, he will at once go astray. The business which he has undertaken is to collect and arrange all the words, whether good or bad, whether they do or do not commend themselves to his judgment, which, with certain exceptions hereafter to be specified, those writing in the language have employed. He is an historian of it not a critic… There is a constant confusion here in men’s minds. There are many who conceive of a Dictionary as though it had this function, to be a standard of the language; and the pretensions to be this which the French Dictionary of the Academy sets up, may have helped this confusion. It is nothing of the kind” (Trench 1860: 7).

To this end, national census officers are therefore like lexicographers. They record people while lexicographers record words. Their aim is to record all people whether good or bad. They don’t just document good citizens. So do dictionary makers. They record all the words, whether good or bad. It is strange though that dictionary makers are sometimes expected to document only good words and not record rude words, insults, or obscenities. This is obviously a bizarre expectation. It would be unthinkable for a census person to document only pleasant and well behaved individuals and leave the rude, rough and the criminal. 

Just like people, words live breath and move and finally die. When they die and nobody uses them we no longer list them in our dictionaries. In the same way that people when they die they are no longer counted in a national census, words will only become a memory in certain people’s minds or occur in some old texts. Some words are archaic.

Dumela Thapelo J Otlogetswe

June 4, 2014

Leboko le le latelang le kwadilwe ke Stephanus Arnoldus Swanepoel. ‘Ina la gagwe la Setswana ke Rralebelo. O goletse kwa GaSeleka gautshwane le Lephalale. O ithutile, Sesulu, Sepedi le Setswana. PhD ya gagwe kwa UNISA e ne e le ka Dinaane tsa Setswana. O dirile jaaka motlhatlheledi e le moporofesara wa Setswana kwa Yunibesething ya Bokone Bophirima kwa Potchefstroom. Prof Swanepoel o tlogetse tiro ka bogodi, jaanong o nna gaufi le toropo ya Kapa kwa Kleinmond. Ke leboogela leboko le a le ntlhametseng.

Khunou ya maralladithota ka re dumela
Dumela setswatharing-ya-Batlogetswe
Ga re a go tlogela moritsana wa rona
Re ne re go beile fela
Ra go bipa ka dikakanyo tsa rona
Ra go tlhakatlhakanya le botlhe
Kana o lekalana la rona koo legaeng la Morena
Ra inama
Ra khubama ka mangole
Ra lebisa difatlhego koo tlase ra rapela
Ra di tsholela lefatshe dithapelo tsa rona
Modimo ako o re gopole tlhe
Wa goroga mo gae
Ra go baya matlho
Ba ba itseng ba simolola ba go bitsa Thapelo
Ra dumela le rona

Se bone ngwana wa go kopiwa jaana ka thapelo
Thapelo o tla di wetsa mo bophelong ba gagwe
Ke ene makgona tsotlhe
Kana Batswana ba re:
Se bone nonyane go rakalla kwa godimo go ya tlase ke ga yone.

Ke e gamile bagaetsho e bidiwa Penologa.

30 meanings of the word “tshwara”

June 3, 2014

In the study of words – let’s fancifully call it lexical analysis, a distinction is made between a word that has multiple related meanings and multiple words which have the same spelling. When a single word has multiple related meanings, we say such a word is polysemous. Polysemy is a lexical relationship in which one word has multiple related meanings. This is usually exemplified by the word head in English. The word head means “the top part of your body that has your brain, eyes, mouth etc in it”. This meaning of the word head refers to the physical object that is usually seen and touched in animals. However when someone says: “A thought suddenly came to my head” here the word head refers to the mind and thoughts. The word head can also be used to refer to a leader as in a school head. All these meanings are related to the original head-meaning, making the word head polysemous. A distinction must however be made between a word that has multiple related meanings and words which share the same spelling but which have absolutely unrelated meanings. For instance in English we have bank meaning “a financial institution that people or businesses can keep their money in or borrow money from.” There is also another word “bank” which means “a raised area of land along the side of a river”. These two words happen to share the same spelling. They are unrelated. We also have the word bear meaning “to accept a difficult or unpleasant situation, especially without complaining”. A different word bear can mean “to give birth to a child”. There is yet a different word bear meaning “a large wild animal with thick fur.” This state of affairs in linguistics, where different words happen to share the same spelling is called homography [homo meaning same; graphy meaning writing].

In this column we wish to discuss the polysemous meanings of tshwara. It is a peculiar word in that it has a very wide scope of usage. We use tshwara to mean to physically touch something. In this way it is synonymous with the Setswana word kgoma. You can therefore say Ga ke batle a tshwara ngwanake (I don’t want him to touch my child). The sense can be extended to included touching or dealing with a certain topic. Thus you can say: Kgang eo ga o a tshwanela go e tshwara (You are not supposed to touch (deal) with that matter). Tshwara can be used to mean to hold as in to hold a pole (go tshwara pale). This is certainly more than just touching something but it deals with holding something firmly. We use tshwara to mean catch and this is in a variety of ways. If I throw a ball to you, I expect you to catch it – ke solofela gore o e tshware. I can therefore say catch! Tshwara! But we also use Tshwara! when we are not throwing anything to anybody. We instead use it when we are handing something to somebody. Therefore when someone gives you an orange they can say: tshwara! almost synonymous with the English expression: here! or take! Tshwara can also be used mean to work somewhere as in O tshwere kwa Lobatse – “He works in Lobatse”. Sometimes tshwara is repeated into tshwaratshwara as in O tshweretshwere kwa Lobatse. Used in this way there is a sense of diminution in tshwara almost suggesting that the job is nothing much, or is of little value or significance.

You also use the word tshwara to mean to catch up with something. This is in the sense of chasing after something, trapping something or catching up with something in the sense of just catching up with something as you move along. Therefore O ka leleka mmutla o bo o tshwara (chase after a rabbit and catch it) or o ka thaisa nonyane o bo e tshwara (you can set a trap for a bird and catch it) or o ka tshwara motho mo tseleng e e yang masimo (you can find a person on the way to the farms). Tshwara can also be used to mean to possess a skill or knowledge that has been taught to you. Ke ntse ke mo ruta go thaepa jaanong o tshwere (I have been teaching him to type and now he has got it). Tshwara in a related sense means to understand. So if you say ga ke mo tshware you mean I don’t get (understand) him. Tshwara also means to receive a signal by an electronic equipment such as a radio, television or phone. So we can say “the phone cannot receive a signal from here” Mogala o gana go tshwara fa. When someone offers you much needed help o a go tshwara. It is common to hear a sentence such as Re ne re le mo mathateng mme Karabo a re tshwara “We were facing serious problems and Karabo helped us”. When you join things and they hold we say di tshwere. However when we join things and the joint fails to hold we say ga di a tshwara. In Setswana if you are leading an event either as its organiser or as a master of ceremony, ra re o e tshwere, e mo diatleng tsa gago. This could apply to a wedding ke tshwere nyalo ya ga nnake “I am working on my younger brother’s wedding.” We also use tshwara to refer to keeping something to yourself such as a secret and not passing it on. O tshwere sephiri “He is keeping a secret”. We use the word tshwara to refer to taking a certain mode of transport to a place. O ne a tshwara terena a ya Francistown “He took a train to Francistown”. Tshwara is also used to express a general estimate when expressing numbers as in bana ba ka tshwara lesome “about ten children”. Tshwara is used to mean to connect with someone on the phone; to get someone. Ke ne ka mo leletsa mme ka se ka ka mo tshwara “I called his number but I did not get him”. Tshwara can also mean to have a certain illness: as in sehuba se ne sa mo tshwara “he got a flu.” We can also use tshwara to mean to discover an illness or disease in someone. Go ne ga tshwarwa TB mo go ene kwa sepatela “At the hospital they found out that he had TB”. To find someone in the middle of a crime o a mo tshwara, you find them out. This is different from arresting which is also expressed by tshwara. When you get an answer in a test or a class exercise…o a tshwara. I must stop here. There is much to be written about tshwara. I haven’t even started on the idiomatic expressions such as go tshwarwa ke tlala, tshwarwa ke kgakge,tshwara ka letsogo la molema, tshwarisa motho logaga, tshwara logaba, tshwara matletlesi, tshwara mogoma, tshwara motho ka ntsogotlho, tshwara phage ka mangana, tshwara poo, tshwara pelo, tshwara mala ka lebogo and many others. Such is the lexical richness of our tongue.

How a Limkokwing student transformed Setswana studies forever

May 14, 2014

In my job as a language practitioner and linguist I have been fortunate to meet some committed and gifted individuals. Many of these are persons in other disciplines such as History, Computer Science or Law. In some cases some of these are actually students who work with me in some of my projects. Many of the students who participate in my projects are keen but they lack the focus, commitment, discipline and passion to stay with a project for long. They usually start with great enthusiasm that usually fizzles away after a week or a few days. This is in part because many of the projects that I embark on, though important, attract no salary. They are volunteer-driven. I believe there is much that can be achieved with minimum sponsorship. However, in this harsh economic climate, many find volunteerism quite a challenge.

I was rather pleasantly surprised when earlier this year I received an intern from Limkokwing University who wanted to work for three months on one of my language projects. Her name was Warona Makhafu. Two projects were running at the time. First, it was the development of the Setswana dictionary project, whose publication will coincide with Botswana’s 50th independence celebrations in 2016. The second project was the Tlatlana project that we had just launched at www.tlatlana.com. The Tlatlana project is a groundbreaking project that attempts to make Setswana book analyses available to Setswana language and literature users. The site also comprises educational material on Setswana grammar and culture. While English has Sparknotes and other sites, Setswana has nothing. Warona was a Creative Writing student. She therefore chose the Tlatlana project since it was closer to her training compared to a project in lexicography. It made sense. Her job was straightforward. She had to read as many novels, plays and poems as possible and deliver to me critical analyses of such pieces of work. I would then assess and polish them before returning them for correction and improvement. Makhafu, though trained in creative writing, she was trained in Creative Writing in English and not in Setswana. This posed a great challenge conceptually. There was before her a terminology hurdle to dispose of. She knew of characters, mood, theme, conflict, persona, a playwright, novel, novella, short story, stanza, rhyme, alliteration, assonance, and many such terms that are a student of literature’s building blocks of critical discourse. What were these terms in Setswana? She had no clue. How was she to provide critical analyses of Setswana texts when she lacked the basic terminology to deal with the subject? She attempted a solution. She suggested that she would write her criticism in English and that I would translate it into Setswana for publication in Tlatlana. Her suggestion was rejected outright! She was thrown into the deep end. She had to deal with Setswana texts, something that she was unfamiliar with, in the Setswana language, which she lacked the requisite analysis terminology of.

Warona agreed. She wasn’t fazed. Instead she demonstrated great determination, focus and passion in her work. Her challenges were enormous. Like many who unfamiliar with writing in Setswana there were numerous spelling challenges. Many Setswana writers struggle with basic word divisions. And this challenge confronted Warona. Is it gore or go re; e sele or esele; e rile or erile; sale or sa le. There were also challenges with words such as kwa and not ko; logong and not legong. I was impressed by Warona’s love for reading – a rare quality amongst many of our students whose greatest read is brief text messages and Facebook messages. She read voraciously and with insatiable delight. To have a student with a passion for reading extensively is rare and greatly gratifying for one working with text. It is even rarer to meet one who delights in reading Setswana since many Batswana are semi-literate in the Setswana language. This is in part because many never read or write Setswana beyond their senior secondary school level. There is also a second problem. The Setswana language isn’t associated with educatedness and career progress. This makes it unattractive for many learners, schools and teachers.

I was however delighted that Warona took her work seriously and professionally. Within a short time she had delivered her first short story analysis and was keen on working on a different piece. From there Warona produced impressive analyses of all the literature texts that are done at junior secondary school. All these analyses have been published at www.tlatlana.com and are supporting Setswana classes across the country and beyond the Botswana borders. What impressed me most is that Warona came to me industry-ready and needed minimum training. Additionally, her skills are transferrable from English training to Setswana. This is important since the publishing industry in Africa is largely multilingual. Therefore, anyone who can apply skills learnt in one language to a different language scenario is destined to go rather far in their career. This was my view of Warona Makhafu. Her training at Limkokwing has prepared her for a highly competitive and demanding career in publishing or the media. Her individual personal traits that include amongst others calmness, focus, passion, commitment will ensure that she goes far in her career. Students with her unique qualities are rare. I was fortunate to meet her and she will go down in history as one of the individuals who has contributed meaningfully to studies in Setswana. The Tlatlana project has attracted much interest across the border in South Africa amongst Setswana educationalist at the North West University and amongst the Bafokeng at Lebone school. The collaboration between Setswana educationalist across different nations will go a long way to building a body of Setswana training information which will advance Setswana education.

self pity

May 12, 2014

I never saw a wild thing sorry for itself.
A small bird will drop frozen dead from a bough
without ever having felt sorry for itself

— D.H. Lawrence

Women can abuse men terribly

May 2, 2014

When many write and discourse on gender abuse or sexual abuse, they are naturally considered to be speaking about male abuse on the female person. This is, in particular, true in the Botswana case, where patriarchy is rife. Cases of the abuse of males by their female counterparts in Botswana are therefore almost inconceivable. They are unbelievable and laughable before the police, parents and society in general. What kind of man gets abused by a woman? O tshwanetse a bo a jesitswe, ba mo tsere boloko kgotsa ke pharamesing. A man must be strong; a warrior and muscular. What kind of warrior gets slapped around by a woman in petticoats and skirts?

Female abuse doesn’t take the same form as male abuse. It certainly cannot, since men and women are different. Male abuse usually manifests itself in physical violence & in certain cases, financial restrictions on the spouse. Unbeknown to many, there are many men in our country who are suffering great abuse from their partners. They suffer in silence because it is unmanly for one to complain of female abuse. Their abuse therefore remains unreported and untreated. The perpetrators know this and use a man’s silence and isolation to their own advantage – to keep their victim isolated and tormented. While there are limited studies on female on male violence and abuse, the world is slowly realizing that the kind of violent and destructive behaviour observed amongst men some of it is largely engendered by their abusive female partners. Researchers and commentators agree on a number of indicators that show that a woman is abusing her male companion. Below we discuss some of these with the hope that men in our country will be able to identify their abusers without cultural restrictions inhibiting their judgement. How do we identify the abusive female partner?

The first sign is that the abusive woman usually throws a huge tantrum if she doesn’t get her way with her partner. She is easily upset and uses her fiery tempter as a controlling tool. She yells, she cries, throws things and she may even throw herself to the ground so that a man may give in. She harangues her man. Men who hate drama therefore do everything to eschew setting off their partners. They therefore give in, unaware that they are giving in to abuse and manipulation.

One of an abuser’s top goals is to isolate her victim and keep him away from communicating with anyone who might present a view that differs from theirs. The abusive woman would therefore attempt to separate a man from his friends, his parents and other relatives. A man’s mother may suddenly be seen as a spoiler, a witch who is a bad grandmother. She may even be labelled possessive of her own son.

Another sign that a woman is abusive of her man is that she withholds sex when she doesn’t get what she wants. Sex is used a tool to control her partner. If she is dissatisfied with something in the relationship, she rolls herself in a sheet, gives her partner her back and withholds sex from a partner. The man starved of sex gives in to the demands of his partner.

An abusive woman is usually verbally hostile. She doesn’t use fists or sticks to attack her man. She uses her tongue to lash at the man who cannot keep up with her language. She belittles the man, reminds him that he is nothing, repeatedly stabbing him with poisonous and sharp words. The man remains psychologically battered, weakened, debased and feeling inadequate.

The abusive woman also wishes to control the financial independence of the man. She wants to take total control of a man’s pay. She argues that the man doesn’t know how to handle his money. Instead her ultimate aim is to spend with wild abandon the money earned by the man, lead him to financial ruin. She therefore spends the man’s money on herself, buying clothes, drinks and food, and beautifying herself while the man increasingly looks shabby and dejected. This is parasitical abuse which many men remain unaware of, and sometimes consider normal.

The abusive woman also has unreasonable expectations. She may know that the two of you can only afford to live in a P2000 rent house. She will however insist that the two of you should live in a P4000 rent house largely to impress her friends and relatives. She may know that you cannot afford expensive clothes, or an expensive car. However she will insist on these expensive expenses driving both you to financial ruin.

The abusive woman may threaten to call the police on you every time you disagree or quarrel. She may inform your superiors at work of your family arguments and disagreement. She will call your aunts, uncles or cousins every time you have disagreements. She does this to portray the man as an unstable person. She wants to be seen as a victim and the man as a perpetrator. Instead of resolving her family problems with her man, she actually avoids engaging him. She instead prefers to spread news of any disagreements between the two of them to the man’s friends and relatives. This is abusive on the man and attempts to portray him as unreasonable and a source of problems.

Many men suffer in silence in abusive relationships. They don’t usually report instances of abuse. While they may be terribly traumatised in their relationship, they are not taken seriously by the police and are despised by the society for being weak. It is therefore important that firstly men identify the source of the problem. They need to identify instances of abuse and characterise them as abuse instead of dismissing their abusers as ridiculous and a nuance. While there is an expectation culturally on men to be strong and not display any sign of weakness, it is only when men empower themselves, identify abuse and resist it that they will be able to lead healthy and productive lives.

How history can contribute to linguistics

March 23, 2014

There is much that linguistics can learn from history. There is also much that historians can learn from linguists. There is even an area of linguistics which attempts to bring together history and linguistics. Such an area is known as historical linguistics. Much of historical linguistics attempts to account for linguistic change. For languages with a writing system this may include studies of changes in the spelling system of the language over time. For instance, in Setswana though the language has a short written history it has already gone through some changes orthographically. One reading the earlier writings of the Batswana finds the name of the Setswana language spelt as Secoana, Sechwana, Secuana, or Sichuana. The 1908 Setswana Bible spell ja “eat” as ya.  Even as recent as some 20 years ago, setshaba was spelt as sechaba. Other historical linguistics studies attempt to describe and account for sound changes of certain words in the language – that is, how certain words have changed pronunciation over the years. From the description of sound change, linguists then develop theories of how and why such changes have occurred. Historical linguistics also deals with the classification of languages – seeing how they are related. For instance, the study of clusters of Bantu languages and conditions which have engendered splits of language communities. Historical linguistics like the general discipline of history attempts to account for the history of certain speech communities. Of general interest to me is the area of the study of the history of words known as etymology. Etymology is a broad area. It has had a great impact in the documentation and representation of meaning in dictionaries. The case in point is the development of the Oxford English Dictionary written on historical principles. Such a dictionary has an ambitious aim of recording each English word from its birth to its death, carefully documenting the development of its shades of meaning over time. Richard Chenevix Trench  therefore considered a dictionary as “an historical monument, the history of a nation contemplated from one point of view; and the wrong ways into which a language has wandered or been disposed to wander, may be nearly as instructive as the right ones in which it has traveled: as much as may be learned, or nearly as much from its failures as from its success, from its follies as from its wisdom”.

An interesting paper on Setswana lexicon was recently published by Morton and Hitchcock (2013). It is published by the South African Historical Journal. It is entitled Tswana Hunting: Continuities and Changes in the Transvaal and Kalahari after 1600. It is about hunting in the Kalahari and Transvaal area as practised by the Tswana. The authors cleverly study the vocabulary from the 1600 which reveal the way of life from the period.  They also look at what the different animals were used for as well as the weapons that were used during the hunts. Some of the vocabulary that they list include: bogale blade of a spear, knife (also ‘anger, sharpness’) bora bow, bora le motswi bow and arrow, digopo hunting blinds, pits, kobe spear with barbed blade, kobi whip snare, lemena game pit (with spikes), lerumo spear, letsomo/letsholo hunting party, lore spear shaft, handle, losane broad-bladed spear, makgolela bow string, mokgotla a trap (falling log), mogotshe bow string, molamu knobkerrie, mosokela-tsebeng bow string, motlhala spoor, motswi arrow/fishing spear/point, mutlwana(e) snare, segae/segai spear, assegai, segole whip snare, selekela game pit, selekelo/telekelo place to which animals chased, sekotlopo quiver for arrows, selatedi pit for trapping ostriches and small game, senya notch in an arrow, setai/serai snare, trap, pit, theko spear handle, shaft, knobkerrie, thipa knife, tlhabadilebanye bowstring, tlhagare small iron arrow tip, tlhobolo quiver for arrows (archaic; adopted for firearm, gun, rifle), tshane broad-bladed spear; sharpened stick used by herdboys, tshosa long spear with large blade.


One impressing thing to note concerning this data is that it demonstrates meaning change. For instance, the word tlhobolo before the advent of firearms used to mean a quiver for arrows and with the advent of guns there was a semantic shift and it was exclusively used to refer to a gun or rifle. Many think that the term mosokela-tsebeng which is now used to mean a telephone (especially a fixed line) is a recent invention. However, mosokela-tsebeng has also undergone semantic shift since it originates from a bow string which used to be pulled to the ear when someone was shooting an arrow. This action is similar to the one where someone pulls a receiver to the ear to listen and speak. Additionally the representation of lemena as game pit (with spikes) brings clarity to the Setswana idiom: go epela motho lemena (literally to dig a game pit for someone). It demonstrates the degree of harm & the murderous action of such an action. Certain words are now archaic such as tshane and tshosa (this word is not to be confused with the verb meaning to frighten but it must be pronounced as the name of the kgotla both in Serowe & Molepolole kwa gooTshosa). Another word which is used differently these days is the word sekotlopo. This word is used when someone swallows a number of objects quickly without chewing them first, we say o di metsa sekotlopo, i.e. he swallows them as a quiver for arrows swallows the arrows. Strangely the meaning of a quiver for arrows is completely lost especially since hunting has diminished.

It is important that linguists consider the work of historians and learn a thing or two. It will certainly enrich their view of language and therefore gain a better understanding of their discipline, linguistics.


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